The premier source of meteorological and oceanographic measurements for the marine environment. The surface temperature of the world’s oceans varies mainly with latitude, with the warmest waters generally near the equator and the coldest waters in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. This results in less warming of the water. In cold regions, such as the North Atlantic Ocean, ocean water loses heat to the atmosphere and becomes cold and dense. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Hadalpelagic Zone The deepest zone of the ocean, the hadalpelagic zone extends from 19,700 feet (6,000 meters) to the very bottom at 36,070 feet (10,994 meters) in the Mariana Trench off the coast of Japan. Time of day and wind direction may have a temporary local effect as can water flows from neraby rivers. Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. Whilst sea temperatures for Key West are as accurate as current data allows, there may be slight local and regional variations depending on conditions. Quality Sea Surface Temperature Charts. The National Data Buoy Center's home page. Sea surface temperatures have a large influence on climate and weather. NESDIS is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Commerce. Ocean currents govern the world's weather and churn a kaleidoscope of life. Seawater - Seawater - Temperature distribution: Mid-ocean surface temperatures vary with latitude in response to the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing longwave radiation. For example, every 3 to 7 years a wide swath of the Pacific Ocean along the equator warms by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Deep ocean currents. The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is part of the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS). Water warms up more slowly than air but can hold more heat – water needs 4 times as much energy to raise its temperature by 1ºC as the same mass of air does – so the ocean plays an important part in taking up energy from the Sun and stopping the Earth getting too hot. The water temperature is constantly near freezing and only a few creatures can be found at these crushing depths. Sea surface temperature—the temperature of the water at the ocean surface—is an important physical attribute of the world’s oceans. There is an excess of incoming solar radiation at latitudes less than approximately 45° and an excess of radiation loss at latitudes higher than approximately 45°. The ocean is a continuous body of salt water that covers more than 70 percent of the Earth's surface. 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